Permanent magnet DC motor or PMDC motor is a separately excited motor. This motor is different from all other types of motors. From the name permanent magnet, we use a permanent magnet to create the required magnetic field.
And I should tell you that a PMDC motor generally operates on 6V,12V, or 24V Dc supply obtained from batteries or rectifiers.
Applications of Permanent Magnet DC Motor
This motor is very simple in construction.
But unfortunately, the field control of this motor isn’t possible, so we use only small DC motors. It applies to stuff as follows;
- Windshield wipers
- Automobiles as a starter motor
- Blowers in heaters and air conditioners
- Personal computer disc drives
- And also in small fractional and sub-fractional KW motors
Types of Permanent Magnet Materials
We usually use three types of permanent magnet materials in this motor.
We usually use alnicos, where we require low current and a high voltage.
Because it has the advantage of low coercive magnetizing intensity and also high residual flux density.
They are evident in cost-sensitive applications. Such as air conditioners, compressors, and refrigerators because they are very stable and difficult to demagnetize.
- Rare earth
The rare earth’s focus is for size-sensitive applications like automobiles, servo industrial drives, and large industrial motors. Additionally, they have high residual flux and high coercive magnetizing intensity since they comprise samarium cobalt, neodymium, iron, and boron.
Construction of Permanent Magnet DC Motor
PMDC motor has the same construction as any other motor.
- The stator
This is a steel cylinder mounted on the inner periphery of the magnets. These magnets are usually made from rare earth materials or neodymium. The magnets are mounted with the N-pole and S-pole faced towards the armature.
The stator also serves as a low reluctance return path for the magnetic flux. In the permanent magnet, we don’t need field coils. However, we use them along with the permanent magnet to compensate for the magnetic strength lost by permanent magnets.
- The rotor
The PMDC motor rotor is similar to other DC motors. There is a core made of many varnishes insulated and slotted circular laminations of steel sheets used to reduce eddy loss in the armature. Also, carbon or graphite brushes are placed on the commutator segments to supply current to the armature.
Working Principle of Permanent Magnet DC Motor
It is the same working principle of DC motors when a carrying conductor comes inside a magnetic field. The conductor experiences a mechanical force, and we define the direction of this force by Fleming’s left-hand rule.
Similarly, it is the same in permanent magnet; we place the armature inside the permanent magnet’s magnetic field. This armature rotates in the direction of the generated force, and the compilation of force produced by each conductor produces a torque that tends to rotate the armature.
The Equivalent Circuit of This Motor
Permanent magnets produce the field in the PMDC motor.
So, we don’t need to draw field coils in the equivalent circuit. The equivalent circuit is very simple because it is just a voltage supply connected to the armature by the armature resistance.
So, the voltage equation will be
Advantages of Magnet DC Motor
PMDC motor has great advantages over other types of the motor as:
- It’s very simple in construction.
- There is no need for a field excitation arrangement.
- Input power doesn’t affect the efficiency of the PMDC motor.
- We don’t use field coils, so there is more space, and the motor’s overall size reduces.
- It’s cheaper and economical for fractional KW applications.
Disadvantages of the Magnet DC Motor
Here are some disadvantages:
- The strength of the field may get weak due to the demagnetizing effect of armature reaction. Because we cannot compensate for the armature reaction.
- There is a chance of poles demagnetizing due to excessive armature current during starting.
- We have a fixed and limited field in the air gap that we can’t control externally, and it makes the control of the motor speed difficult.