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3 Phase Induction Motor

July 12, 2020

On this topic, I will explain in detail about 3 phase induction motor construction. Before we talked about parts of the electric motor generally. However, on this topic, we will go deeper only on the 3 phase induction motor construction.

Nikola Tesla invented the 3 phase induction motor in 1886.

They are considered to be the most widespread in the industry today. In America, more than 50 million of these species are collected by 150 million horsepower. It is estimated to increase by one million motors every year.

3 phase induction motor

The widespread of the induction motor is due to its advantages such as durability, the simplicity of installation, low price compared to other electric motors, and lack of maintenance.

Induction motor also has capabilities of horsepower ranging from a part to more than 10,000.

It does not need any means of excitation in addition to its high efficiency.

The advantages of operating it are good and satisfactory for a business that does not require a change in speed.

The disadvantages of 3 phase induction motors are that; it is not easy to control its speed. Also, the starting current of this engine is six to eight times full load as well as the low power factor at light loads.

But we find that the advantages of this motor outweigh its defects in most industrial applications. Additionally, electronic controls and drives are essentially known to overcome these defects.

3 phase induction motor construction

The 3 phase induction motor has two main components, such as any other motor:

  • Stator
  • Rotor

The Stator

The stator composes of magnetic strips of magnetic iron. Ranging from 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm in size according to the size of the induction motor. They are isolated from each other with an electric insulator. Together they form a cylindrical object with a number of sewers inside it in order to install the winding.

The aim of manufacturing the stator with this method is to reduce the iron heat generated by the eddy current. This is as a result of the iron exposed to the variable magnetic field within the motor.

Large motors usually have ventilation holes between the slides in the stator.

After completing the manufacture of the stator in this way, we divide it into the required number of electrodes. Furthermore, we divide the sewage in all poles into the three phases. Then the windings are installed per each phase in the sewer under each pole. This is to separate each phase and the last 120 degrees electric.

At the end of the winding process, three phases will have been installed in the fixed member of each winding. These terminals will be fed by the stator after connecting them to either as a star or delta. This is the delta connection for 3 phase induction motors and star connection for 3 phase induction motors.

The Rotor

There are two different types of structure and similar in electrical properties.

The 3 phase induction motor is usually called according to the type of its rotor to distinguish between the two types:

  • Wound rotor type
  • Squirrel cage rotor type
Wound rotor type

The rotor composes of concentric strips of magnetic iron isolated from each other. Mounted on the shaft of the motor with a number of sewers to install on the winding.

The rotor is divided into a number of poles. These are equal to the poles of the stator.

The sewer is grouped into three sections. Each section is fitted with the winding on one of the three sides between each phase and the last 120 degrees of electricity.

Usually, these three windings come in the shape of a star where three limbs are shortened together within the rotor. The other three are connected to three sliding rings mounted on the same shaft through the sliding rings and carbon brushes used for sliding rings during rotation.

We connect the rotor coil to the outside of the motor to control the start of the motor’s rotation. Or to regulate its speed by connecting external resistors to these three sides.

Therefore, this type of induction motor has the potential to change the characteristics of its operation on a large scale by connecting the windings rotor through an external circuit.

Squirrel cage rotor type

The squirrel cage rotor is very similar to the rotor in the wound rotor type in terms of mechanical structures. Instead of placing windings in the sewer, copper or aluminum rods are used. The ends of these bars are shortened with two rings.

This type is not divided into a number of poles. However, it can automatically adapt to the number of poles and phases of the stator in which it will be installed.

Since it does not have slip rings an external circuit cannot be connected. The properties cannot be changed or controlled by their speed.