Nuclear Power Plants

July 11, 2020
nuclear power plants

A nuclear power plant or Nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which uranium is used as fuel, or a nuclear reactor is used as a heat source. Thermal power stations use heat to generate steam, which is used to drive a steam turbine connected to an electrical generator that produced electricity.

Similarly, nuclear power plants are a base load station, and they are usually designed near water sources to remove the heat produced by the reactor.

Then again, there are about four hundred nuclear plants worldwide, but the high percentage is in the United Stade, Japan, France, Russia, and China.

Nuclear Power Plant Working Principle

To understand a nuclear power plant, we should delve deep into the working principle of the nuclear power plant, which is very simple.

Firstly, atoms spilled apart into smaller atoms in the nuclear fission, which occurs inside the power plant reactor.

Secondly, there is a uranium fuel in the core of the reactor; the uranium is formed into ceramic pellets. Each pellet produces the same amount of energy, equals 150 gallons of oil.

Thirdly, we use the heat produced during the fission to boil water into steam; then we use this steam to turn steam turbine blades, in turns.

Then, the electric generator turns to produce electricity.

After that, the steam is cooled back into the water at the cooling tower, and we can reuse this water corresponding to the Rankine cycle.

Nuclear Power Plant Diagram

The line diagram is the best heeding which would help us as the nuclear power plant consists of four main components each have subdivided component and has its special function; let’s see:

Heat Exchanger

It’s a device used to recover heat between heaters (where steam is employed to heat process fluids) and coolers (where water is added to cool the process fluids).

Additionally, the heat exchanger may consist of a tube sheet, tube bundle; head, and nozzles or consists of a shell; shell baffles; head; and nozzles.

Steam Turbine

Firstly, a valve transfers the steam from the heat exchanger to the steam turbine, where the steam expands and causes the turbine to turn to produce mechanical energy.

After that, the steam exhausts the condenser to condensate the feed through the feedwater pump to the heat exchanger.

Alternator (electric generator)

It consists of coils used to convert the turbine’s mechanical energy into electrical energy, transmitted to consumers, and distributed by transformers.

Cooling Tower

It’s the most iconic symbol of the nuclear plant; it’s used to reject waste heat to the atmosphere as it transfers heat from hot water to the cooler outside air.

Nuclear Reactor

Firstly, it’s the plant’s main component; it’s a cylindrical shape where the heavy isotope uranium is used as a nuclear fuel.

Also, this reactor is enclosed by a reactor core; the reflector and thermal shielding, which can control the chain reaction in the reactor, is high.

Additionally, the nuclear reactor consists of uranium fuel rods made of the fission materials and a release of a large amount of energy.

A moderator that maintains the chain reaction works by suitably releasing the neutrons before mixing with fissile materials and control rods made of boron-10 and cadmium.

Types of Nuclear Reactors

There are mainly three types of nuclear reactors which are:

Firstly, civilian reactors: Usually used to generate energy for electricity and sometimes to generate steam for district heating.

Secondly, military reactors: Used to create materials in nuclear weapons.

Thirdly, research reactors: It produces radioisotopes used to develop weapons or energy production technology and for training purposes; nuclear physics experimentation; and for producing radioisotopes for medicine or research.

And these types of reactors can also be classified according to the design:

1- Pressurized Water Reactor

It’s the most used type globally, which uses enriched uranium in an oxide form as nuclear fuel. This is used to heat the water in the reactor under a high pressure to become steam and drives the turbine connected to the electric generator, which generates the electric power.

2- Boiling Water Reactor

It’s a frequently used type that also uses the enriched uranium to heat the water in the reactor until it boils into steam to spin the turbine, which drives the generator to produce electricity.

3- Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

It uses the high-pressure heavy water as a refrigerant and as a neutron moderator.

Similarly, the reactor core contains a tank with the moderator with heavy water used to cool the fuel under high pressure.

The produced hot coolant goes to the steam generator to produce steam to run the turbine and the generator.

4- Gas Reactor

Here, we use graphite as a moderator of neutrons and carbon dioxide as a refrigerant in the gaseous state.

5- Light Water Graphite Reactor

In this type, we use ordinary water as the coolant and graphite as the moderator.

Moreover, the coolant passes through the reactor to be boiled and become steam that passes through the turbine and the generator.

6- Breeder Reactor

It has an excess of neutrons that are given off by fission reactions, and this reactor produces more fissionable fuel than they consume.

Nuclear Power Plant Layout:

The layout of the nuclear power plant illustrates all the plant components and makes it easy for us to know what is a nuclear power plant in a simple meaning. For instance, it contains the following:

  • Reactor building
  • Steel containment
  • Polar crane
  • Ice condenser
  • Refueling machine
  • Reactor pressure vessel
  • Control rod drives
  • Primary circuit
  • Main circulation pump
  • Main shut off valve
  • Steam generator
  • Tank area
  • Laboratory building
  • Computer room
  • Main control room
  • Turbo_generators
  • Moisture separator reheater
  • Condensate purification plant
  • Office building
  • Demineralization plant
  • A cooling water pumping plant
  • Main coolant pump
  • Demineralized water tank
  • Switchyard
  • Service building
  • Ventilation stacks
  • Auxiliary building
  • Exhaust air conditioning center
  • Evaporators of an active water treatment plant
  • Machine repair shop
  • Liquid waste storage

That’s approximately the layout of all nuclear plants. Nonetheless, there would be some difference from one type to another, and that’s what you need to know about the plant’s layout.

Applications of Nuclear Power Plant

This plant serves mainly to produce electricity. However, it also serves in many other applications such as:

Industrial Applications:

Nuclear plants are useful to develop and improve processes as measurements, automation, and quality control. Likewise, they are also used as a prerequisite for the complete automation of high-speed protection lines. Similarly, in the manufacturing of plastics and sterilization of disposable products.

Military Applications (nuclear weapons):

Some weapons depend on nuclear technologies in their design, for instance, aircraft, submarines, carriers, and cruises.

Hydrology:

Nuclear techniques represented in isotopic hydrology serve to trace water movements in the hydrologic cycle; we can also use isotopes for investigating underground water sources and determine their origin and their recharge method.

Nuclear Medicine:

Radiopharmaceuticals use radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant tumors, teletherapy for oncological treatment, radiological biology that allows sterilization of medical products is all significant applications of nuclear medicine procedure.

Agriculture and Food:

Isotope applications make it possible to increase agricultural production in developed countries. Also, nuclear technologies control insect pests, maximize water resources, and improve crop varieties.

Environmental Applications:

The electron beam treatment reduces the environmental and health consequences of the large-scale use of fossil fuel and helps solve problems as the greenhouse effect and acid rain.

Nuclear Power Plant Location

Location is the main consideration we look for to know a nuclear power plant as it helps design the nuclear plant. Because it needs a large amount of space for construction, fuel and waste storage, and computing facilities. Nonetheless, there are many nuclear plants around the world, such as:

  • The kashiwazaki-kariwa nuclear power plant on the coast of the sea of Japan.
  • Bruce nuclear generating station located on the eastern shore of Lake Huron.
  • The Zaporizhia nuclear power plant in Enerhodar, Ukraine.
  • The Gravelines nuclear power station is located near the commune of Gravelines in France.
  • The Cattenom nuclear power plant is located in grand est in the Cattenom commune in France.
  • Hamaoka nuclear power plant in Omaezaki on Japan’s east coast.
  • Pickering nuclear generating station located on Lake Ontario on Pickering.
  • The Tricastin nuclear power plant is located in the south of France.
  • The Chinon nuclear power plant near France Indre et Loire.
  • Bugey nuclear power plant is located in Bugey.
  • Ringhals nuclear power plant is on the Varo Peninsula.
  • Browns Ferry nuclear power plant is located on the Tennessee River.
  • Qinshan nuclear power plant in Qinshan town.
  • Nogent nuclear power plant is located in the France commune of Nogent Sur Seine.
  • Isar nuclear power plant is located near the Isar river.

In short, these are the most common nuclear power plants nowadays. However, there are many other plants under construction. Of course, other plants get out of the service, which means that nuclear plants occupy large importance in producing electricity.

Advantages of Nuclear Power Plants:

There are some advantages of the nuclear power plant as:

  • Firstly, nuclear power is a highly reliable form of energy that can reliably run the day without any changes.
  • Secondly, it’s a less environmentally destructive way of producing electricity because it releases fewer greenhouse and carbon emissions.
  • It’s also very effective for generating enormous amounts of energy as one plant can produce 2-3 GW power.
  • The nuclear fuel cost is relatively low, so the electricity that they produce is quite low.
  • Also, it has a long life of between 40-60 years.

Disadvantages of Nuclear Power Plants:

Like anything, we may find supporters and opponents, so some disagree with nuclear power plant because:

  • The nuclear plant wastes remain dangerously radioactive for many years, which means it isn’t a safe way of generating power.
  • Also, it’s not a renewable source of energy.
  • It can also produce long-range air pollution and water pollution.
  • Also, the costs to make it safer are enormous.

In conclusion, we should choose the best plant according to the place and the investments you have.

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