what are the sources of electricity
what are the sources of electricity? … When we talk about how electricity is generated, we took a hint about sources of electricity or sources used to generate electricity, and we said there are renewable and nonrenewable sources, but after I deep in sources of electricity I ask myself why we give electricity this big importance, did you also do that!
Importance of electricity:
From the moment we open our eyes in the morning until we go to bed in the evening we use electricity at home, office, school, powering televisions, radio, grinder, tape-recorder, heater, washing machine, charging mobiles, and everywhere around us we find electricity.
And to be more definite we use electricity in:
We use electricity in all technical engineering activities as with building ad welding certain materials.
- Communication and transport:
Electricity is the main reason for enjoying all the facilities of transport and communication.
Electricity is very important for the modern treatment of many diseases is surgical, the powerful light the doctors need over the body of the patient upon the operating table, and so on.
- Entertainment programs:
Like television, cinema, radio, tape-recorder, shows and everywhere where we need to rest.
We need electricity here for getting grills for the windows, gates and other iron and steel materials, for polishing mosaic floors and also cutting marble pieces.
Briefly, electricity is the backbone of our life so it’s axiomatic to have many sources of electricity, let’s discuss them.
what are the sources of electricity
We can say that we use 10 different sources of energy to generate power, and we discover other types all the time, but they don’t reach the stage to be used to provide the power we need.
Let’s see the most common types of sources of electricity to reply our main question … what are the sources of electricity? (you can check also … what is power plant and types of power plants):
1- Solar energy:
In the solar energy system, we use collector panels to create conditions that can turn the sun into a kind of power and that happens by:
- The photovoltaic cell which made up of silicon as we connect many cells in series or parallel to create a solar panel.
- And the other way by using mirrors in the sunlight and we use the produced heat to convert the water into steam, and the steam, by the way, rotates the turbines.
And we usually use large solar panel fields in the desert because there would be plentiful amounts of sun available to gather enough power used to charge small substations, and also supplement electricity for many home applications.
Advantages of solar energy:
Solar energy is the most available source so it has the advantages of:
- It’s a clean, renewable energy source.
- The transmission cost is approximately zero for a stand-alone system.
- The cost of maintenance is low.
- The electricity generated is environment-friendly, as it doesn’t cause pollution or noise.
- It is the ideal for remote location as we don’t need to link to the grid.
- And the PVs we use work without sound, air, moving parts, or even water emissions.
Disadvantages of solar energy:
And unfortunately, there are some drawbacks like:
- The high initial cost of establishing the system.
- We can generate electricity only when the sun is shining.
- We need a large area for bulk production.
- The system affected by the weather.
- The batteries we need to store the solar energy is costly.
2- Wind energy:
When the sun heats the air and cooler air moves in to replace or when the air moving it causes the wind, which becomes a more and more common of sources of energy. As the pressure of the wind turns large turbines which then turn generators to produce electricity.
- The wind is a renewable source so it’s unlimited, free and clean.
- The cost of operation is very little.
- We can use this system to generate power in a remote location.
- It can be combined with solar energy to generate a sustainable energy source in developing countries.
Disadvantages of wind energy:
Unfortunately, we can meet some troubles as:
- We can’t get the same amount of electricity in all time.
- We need a big open area.
- It’s complex in maintenance so the maintenance cost is high.
- The construction of the wind turbine is expensive.
- We have low output electricity.
Some countries use geothermal energy which produces from the heat of the earth for many years for hot water, cooking, and heating.
As the slow decay of radioactive particles produces continuously high temperatures inside the earth’s crust and the presented hot rocks below the earth heats up the water to produce steam, which is then helped to move turbines and those turbines power the generators to produce electricity.
- Geothermal energy is environment-friendly because it’s clean and sustainable.
- We can extract the energy without burning fossil fuel.
- The carbon dioxide produced by this system is about one-sixth, which is very fair.
- The geothermal energy is always available.
- It’s inexpensive.
Disadvantages of geothermal energy:
- Unfortunately, the geothermal energy can only produce at selected sites throughout the world.
- The initial cost is high for individual households.
- Although the geothermal sites can provide heat for many decades, some locations may cool down.
- Another problem is the disposal of some geothermal fluids which may contain toxic materials.
4- Hydrogen energy:
It’s the energy produced from water stored in huge dams as we use hydroelectric turbines and generators to transfer the water released from these dams into electricity. As the water contains the hydrogen (H2O) which can be used as fuel for generating electricity, power ships, vehicles, homes, industrial and rockets only when it’s separated.
And the most famous source of this hydroelectric power is in the snow mountains.
Advantages of hydrogen energy:
- It’s inexpensive and doesn’t contribute to the greenhouse effect.
- It’s renewable and doesn’t leave any toxic emission in the atmosphere.
- Also, The hydrogen is more efficient than other sources.
Disadvantages of hydrogen energy:
- It isn’t safe as it’s hugely flammable and frequently makes headlines for its potential dangers.
- It’s daunting to transport hydrogen due to its lightness.
- It needs to be stored and transported under high pressure because it has a low density.
5- Tidal energy:
The Tidal energy produced from the rise and fall of the tides as the kinetic energy of incoming and outgoing tides is converted into electrical energy and that can happen by:
- A Tidal barrages: these barrages are similar in construction to a dam, and in this type we use gates to control the level and flow rate of the water to allow the tidal basin to fill on the incoming high tides and to empty through an electricity turbine, and in this system we can use a two-way tidal power system to generate electricity from both the incoming and outgoing tides.
- Tidal turbines: they are similar to wind turbines and we place them on the seabed where there is strong tidal flow, but they must be much sturdier and heavier to withstand the water which is an 800 times danger than the air.
- Tidal fences: it’s a type of tidal power system which has a vertical axis turbine mounted on a fence or row placed on the seabed, and it’s similar to tidal turbines as the electricity produced from the water passing through the turbines, and from the end of 2016 no tidal fence operates.
Advantages of tidal energy:
- It’s a renewable energy source so the energy produced is free and clean.
- Tidal energy is environment-friendly as it doesn’t produce greenhouse gases.
- The cost of operation or maintenance is relatively low.
- It has a high efficiency around 80%.
- We don’t need to burn any fuel to produce energy.
- The power plants have a very long life.
- The low noise pollution.
- The tidal barrages also provide protection against flooding and land damage.
Disadvantages of tidal energy:
- It’s not a constant energy source because it depends on the strength and flow of the tides.
- The initial construction cost of power plants is high.
- The tides happen only twice a day so we can only produce electricity at this time.
- We need a suitable site where we have a consistently strong tidal.
- It’s a danger to fish and other sea-life.
- Also, We use long underwater cables which cause high power distribution costs.
6- Wave energy:
what are the sources of electricity? … It’s produced from the waves in the oceans, the waves contain tremendous energy potential and we can use wave power devices to extract this energy and then converts it into electrical energy.
And there are popular four technologies for wave power as:
- Terminator devices: we extend this devices perpendicular to the direction of the wave to capture or reflect the power of the wave, and they are typically onshore or near shore.
And terminator devices depend on the wave climate and the devices missions to produce a power rating of 500 KW to 2 MW.
- Attenuators: they are long multi-segment floating structures which are oriented parallel to the direction of the waves, and they extract energy by using restraints at the bow of the device and along its length.
- Point absorber: it’s a floating structure with components which move relative to each other due to wave action, and it often looks like floating oceanographic buoys.
- Overtopping devices: they have reservoirs which filled by incoming waves causing a slight buildup of water pressure, and we use the energy of the falling water to turn hydro turbines and produce electrical power.
Advantages of wave energy:
- It’s a renewable source which is unlimited by a season.
- Wave energy is environmentally friendly, clean source as it doesn’t produce pollution.
- There are a variety of ways to gather this energy from current gathering.
- And the great advantage is that it’s easily predictable and we can calculate the amount of energy produced.
- Also, It’s very safe as it doesn’t cause any damage to the earth.
Disadvantages of wave energy:
- Unfortunately, it’s available only in places where there are oceans.
- It can disturb the sea life around it as it creates noise and there would be toxic chemicals.
- Using the power plants on the coastline may damage the marine ecosystem and disturb the private and commercial vessels.
- It depends on the wavelength, wave speed and the density of the water which isn’t consistent all the time.
- It also depends on the weather which may affect the generation of energy.
what are the sources of electricity? … In hydroelectric energy, we use the falling water to turn turbines, which produce mechanical energy and therefore a hydroelectric generator converts this mechanical energy into electrical power.
- It’s a renewable, clean and safe energy.
- We can use it in the service instantly.
- The water uses in this process can be reused for irrigation and other purposes.
- The cost of running and maintenance is low.
- Also, We don’t need any fuel transportation.
Disadvantages of hydroelectric energy:
- The initial cost of the plant is high.
- We need a long transmission line because we locate the plants in the hilly area.
- Also, unfortunately, it depends on the weather.
8- Biomass energy:
what are the sources of electricity? … It’s the energy from landfill or rubbish dumps, and also comes from organic materials like animal and plant matter, when the above materials decompose or rot we can capture and process them to create electricity as they are collected, dried, then filtered and fed by popes to a gas generator to burn gas and therefore produce electricity.
Advantages of biomass energy:
- We can say that it’s a renewable source because the organic materials (wood, crop waste, garbage, sewage sludge) are never-ending.
- It’s bountiful, so we wouldn’t encounter problems as experiencing with fossil-based sources of fuel.
- The production cost is mainly low.
- Also, it can minimize the impacts of waste in landfills to the environment.
Disadvantages of biomass energy:
- It isn’t entirely clear as it may increase methane gases which are harmful to the earth’s ozone layer.
- It would be a result of deforestation as the biomass sources have to be utilized sustainably.
- Also, The plant matter needs a sufficient amount of water to get by, which may affect the availability of water to humans and wildlife.
9- Nuclear power:
what are the sources of electricity? … In nuclear power, we produce electricity depending on the heat generated from the splitting of uranium atoms in a fission process which is used to produce steam, and then the steam turn power turbines which therefore produce electrical energy which then supplies the surrounding community.
- The space we need is less than the required for thermal or hydro power plants.
- The electrical energy produced from a signal plant is high enough.
- We need a small quantity of fuel.
- Also, The running of plants doesn’t affect the weather or any foreign suppliers.
Disadvantages of nuclear power:
- The initial construction cost is high.
- The cost of operation and maintenance is also high.
- Also, There is a radioactive waste.
10- Fossil fuel energy (coal, oil and natural gas):
what are the sources of electricity? … It’s the most popular source of energy around the world, as we burn coal, oil and natural gas to heat the water to convert to a steam until this steam has the pressure and temperature needed to turn the turbines, and the turbines produce the electrical energy.
Advantages of fossil fuel energy:
- It’s capable to produce a huge amount of electricity in just a signal location.
- Fossil fuels are cheap and reliable.
- Coal is abundant supply and when we use it in power plants, it’s very cost-effective.
- We can use easy task pipes to transport oil and gas to the power stations.
- Also, It’s easy to construct a power station in any location because we can easily transport as large as quantities of fuel for the power plant.
Disadvantages of fossil fuel energy:
- The main disadvantage is the pollution as they give off carbon dioxide, which causes a greenhouse effect when burning.
- They need a continuous large amount of fuel.
- And They may create environmental damage as it would spill during transport.
what are the sources of electricity? … After we listed the main sources of electricity we can’t assert that there is the best type to use instead of all the other sources of electricity but it is your choice to use the type suit to the place and the conditions you have.
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